1. What types of risks/side effects can occur during or after the procedure?
- Complications are rare with this procedure.
- Pain or discomfort at the puncture site is unusual but is the most likely adverse event to occur.
- Bleeding or bruising could occur. This is usually stopped by applying pressure and/or ice to the puncture site. This is more common if you take Aspirin, Warfarin, Clopidogrel (Plavix and Iscover).
- The vein can become narrowed or blocked again. This may require further treatment.
- Failure of local anaesthetic which may require a further injection of anaesthetic or a different
method of anaesthesia may be used.
- Nerve damage, is usually temporary, and should get better over a period of time. Permanent nerve damage is rare.
- Infection, requiring antibiotics and further treatment.
- Failure to access the narrowing in the vein. This may require a second venous
puncture at a different location.
- Damage to surrounding structures such as blood vessels, organs and muscles, requiring further treatment.
- A blood clot or excessive bleeding from the puncture site. This may require other treatment and/or corrective surgery.
- An allergy to injected drugs may occur, requiring further treatment.
- The procedure may not be possible due to medical and/or technical reasons.
- Stroke or stroke like complications may occur but is extremely rare
- Rupture of a blood vessel requiring other treatment and/or corrective surgery.
- Exposure to x-rays.
- Local anaesthetic toxicity.
- Death as a result of this procedure is extremely rare.