1. What types of risks/side effects can occur during or after the procedure?

  • Complications are rare with this procedure.
  • Pain or discomfort at the puncture site is unusual but is the most likely adverse event to occur.
  • Bleeding or bruising could occur. This is usually stopped by applying pressure and/or ice to the puncture site. This is more common if you take Aspirin, Warfarin, Clopidogrel (Plavix and Iscover).
  • The vein can become narrowed or blocked again. This may require further treatment.
  • Failure of local anaesthetic which may require a further injection of anaesthetic or a different
    method of anaesthesia may be used.
  • Nerve damage, is usually temporary, and should get better over a period of time. Permanent nerve damage is rare.
  • Infection, requiring antibiotics and further treatment.
  • Failure to access the narrowing in the vein. This may require a second venous
    puncture at a different location.
  • Damage to surrounding structures such as blood vessels, organs and muscles, requiring further treatment.
  • A blood clot or excessive bleeding from the puncture site. This may require other treatment and/or corrective surgery.
  • An allergy to injected drugs may occur, requiring further treatment.
  • The procedure may not be possible due to medical and/or technical reasons.
  • Stroke or stroke like complications may occur but is extremely rare
  • Rupture of a blood vessel requiring other treatment and/or corrective surgery.
  • Exposure to x-rays.
  • Local anaesthetic toxicity.
  • Death as a result of this procedure is extremely rare.

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